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There are also plenty of shops to explore and practise your haggling. You can get all sorts, from ornaments to jewellery, to exquisite handmade rugs and carpets that will be shipped to you when you get home. I also visit a modern medina in Hammamet Yasmine. The most interesting part for me was standing outside talking to the Berbers, who come in from desert villages armed with a camel, an eagle and a desert fox so tourists can have their pictures taken with them.

The next excursion is to the Berber village of Jeradou. We jump into jeeps and drive through beautiful remote heathland before getting to a village on the pinnacle of a mountain. There are amazing views of the Dorsale mountains and, as our group explores the village, people go about their business and I am welcomed to have my picture taken for a dinar with two elderly women weaving mats.

We then head to Zriba, a deserted Berber village. My final excursion is to Nabeul, where every Friday morning the enormous market takes over the whole town.

Phénicia (Hors collection) (French Edition)

Almost a year after the revolution which started the Arab Spring uprisings, visitors are steadily returning to Tunisia. It has your home comforts, is family-friendly, good value and can be as adventurous as you want to make it. If you usually go to Spain, Greece or Cyprus and fancy somewhere a bit different, give Tunisia a chance.

I did, and loved it. I went in late September when the weather was in the mid to high 20Cs. But any time between May and October is comfortable. Make sure you visit a medina.

Manual Phénicia (Hors collection) (French Edition)

Out of respect to locals, when you are away from the beach and resort clothes should be at least knee-length and cover the tops of your arms. Haggle or talk to the locals. They expect you to do it and it can be fun. Meeting and chatting to the young Berber who had come in from the desert was a highlight. And also got me in trouble with the tour guide for holding up the coach!

You can change money only at the airport or the hotel. You must keep any receipts and change all the money back before you leave the country. Call: By Mirror. Hotel Sentido Phenicia has two pools, two bars and two restaurants Get the biggest daily news stories by email Subscribe We will use your email address only for sending you newsletters. Please see our Privacy Notice for details of your data protection rights.

Thank you for subscribing We have more newsletters Show me See our privacy notice. Like us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter. Follow MirrorTravel. Lifestyle all Most Read Most Recent. Astarte's heavenly emblem was the planet Venus, Tanit's the crescent moon. Tanit was portrayed as chaste; at Carthage religious prostitution was apparently not practiced. Rather the comparison of Tanit would be to Hera and to Juno , regal goddesses of marriage, or to the goddess Artemis of child-birth and the hunt. A problematic theory derived from sociology of religion proposes that as Carthage passed from being a Phoenician trading station into a wealthy and sovereign city-state, and from a monarchy anchored to Tyre into a native-born Libyphoenician oligarchy, Carthaginians began to turn away from deities associated with Phoenicia, and slowly to discover or synthesize a Punic deity, the goddess Tanit.

The catalyst for such dramatic change in Punic religious practice was their recent defeat in war when led by their king Himilco d. Such transformation of religion would have been instigated by a faction of wealthy land owners at Carthage, including these reforms: overthrow of the monarchy; elevation of Tanit as queen goddess and decline of Baal Hammon; allowance of foreign cults of Greek origin into the city Demeter and Kore ; decline in child sacrifice, with most votive victims changed to small animals, and with the sacrifice not directed for state purposes but, when infrequently done, performed to solicit the deity for private, family favors.

This bold historical interpretation understands the reformer's motivation as "the reaction of a wealthy and cultured upper class against the primitive and antiquated aspects of the Canaanite religion, and also a political move intended to break the power of a monarchy which ruled by divine authority. Later, when the city was in danger of imminent attack in , there would be a marked regression to child sacrifice. Yet eventually the cosmopolitan religious reform and the popular worship of Tanit together contributed to "breaking through the wall of isolation which had surrounded Carthage.

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It is this same duality, or readiness to adopt new cultural forms while retaining the old on a more intimate level, which characterizes the [Roman era]. Such Berber ambivalence, the ability to entertain multiple mysteries concurrently, apparently characterized their religion during the Punic era also.

After the passing of Punic power, the great Berber king Masinissa r. Phoenician culture had a huge effect upon the cultures of the Mediterranean basin in the early Iron Age, and had been affected by them in turn. For example, in Phoenicia, the tripartite division between Baal , Mot and Yam seems to have influenced the Greek division between Zeus , Hades and Poseidon.

In various Mediterranean ports during the classical period, Phoenician temples sacred to Melkart were recognized as sacred to Greek Hercules. Stories like the Rape of Europa , and the coming of Cadmus also draw upon Phoenician influence. The recovery of the Mediterranean economy after the late Bronze Age collapse c. There are many countries and cities around the Mediterranean region that derive their names from the Phoenician language.

Below is a list with the respective meanings:. In a shipwreck found off of the coast of Turkey the Ulu Bulurun wreck , Canaanite storage pottery along with pottery from Cyprus and Greece was found. The Phoenicians were famous metalworkers, and by the end of the 8th century BC, Greek city-states were sending out envoys to the Levant the eastern Mediterranean for metal goods.

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The height of Phoenician trade was circa the 7th and 8th centuries BC. There is a dispersal of imports ceramic, stone, and faience from the Levant that traces a Phoenician commercial channel to the Greek mainland via the central Aegean. Al Mina is a specific example of the trade that took place between the Greeks and the Phoenicians.

There is still some question about the veracity of these claims concerning Al Mina. Their most famous trading product was purple dye, the Greek word for which is phoenos. The Phoenician phonetic alphabet was adopted and modified by the Greeks probably in the 8th century BC around the time of the hippoi depictions. This most likely did not come from a single instance but from a culmination of commercial exchange. Though there is no evidence to support the suggestion, it is probable that during this period there was also a passing of religious ideas.

Herodotus credits Cadmus for bringing the Phoenician alphabet to Greece [] approximately sixteen hundred years before Herodotus' time, or around BC, [] as he attested:.

These Phoenicians who came with Cadmus and of whom the Gephyraeans were a part brought with them to Hellas, among many other kinds of learning, the alphabet, which had been unknown before this, I think, to the Greeks. As time went on the sound and the form of the letters were changed. Due to the number of deities similar to the "Lord of the Sea" in classical mythology, there have been many difficulties attributing one specific name to the sea deity or the "Poseidon—Neptune" figure of Phoenician religion.

This figure of "Poseidon-Neptune" is mentioned by authors and in various inscriptions as being very important to merchants and sailors, [] but a singular name has yet to be found. There are, however, names for sea gods from individual city-states. Yamm is the god of the sea of Ugarit , an ancient city-state north to Phoenicia.


Yamm and Baal, the storm god of Ugaritic myth and often associated with Zeus, have an epic battle for power over the universe. While Yamm is the god of the sea, he truly represents vast chaos. In Ugaritic myth, Baal overcomes Yamm's power. In some versions of this myth, Baal kills Yamm with a mace fashioned for him, and in others, the goddess Athtart saves Yamm and says that since defeated, he should stay in his own province.

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Yamm is the brother of the god of death, Mot. In his Republic , Greek philosopher Plato contends that the love of money is a tendency of the soul found amongst Phoenicians and Egyptians, which distinguishes them from the Greeks who tend towards the love of knowledge. In his Histories , Herodotus gives the Persian and Greek accounts of a series of kidnappings that led to the Trojan War. While docked at a trading port in Argos, the Phoenicians kidnapped a group of Greek women including King Idacus's daughter, Io. The Greeks then retaliated by kidnapping Europa, a Phoenician, and later Medea.

The Greeks refused to compensate the Phoenicians for the additional abduction, a fact which Paris used a generation later to justify the abduction of Helen from Argos.

The Greeks then retaliated by waging war against Troy. After Troy's fall the Persians considered the Greeks to be their enemy. Hiram also spelled Huran , the king of Tyre, is associated with the building of Solomon's temple. This is the architect of the Temple, Hiram Abiff of Masonic lore.

Later, reforming prophets railed against the practice of drawing royal wives from among foreigners: Elijah execrated Jezebel , the princess from Tyre in South Lebanon who became a consort of King Ahab and introduced the worship of her god Baal. Long after Phoenician culture flourished, or Phoenicia existed as a political entity, Hellenized natives of the region where Canaanites still lived were referred to as "Syro-Phoenicians", as in the Gospel of Mark "The woman was a Greek, a Syro-phoenician by birth".

The word Bible itself derives from Greek biblion , which means "book" and either derives from, or is the perhaps ultimately Egyptian origin of Byblos , the Greek name of the Phoenician city Gebal. But on the lower plane of the stele, we find the same goddess stylized with upraised arms, possibly as a tree assimilated to the Egyptian life symbol. Her head is the sun, an illusion to the tree birth of the sun, and she is accompanied by two doves, the typical bird of the Great Goddess. She is the daughter of El, the god of heaven, and of his wife the Lady Asherah of the Sea.

Her foremost lover was her brother Baal. She was easily provoked to violence and, once she began to fight, would go berserk, smiting and killing left and right.