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All the schools self-selected to participate. All of the schools involved in the Australian study reported that they had a written anti-bullying policy, but there were differences when it came to how it was shared. Rigby asked teachers about the nature and prevalence of bullying at their school. All but one said they encouraged students to report cases of cyber bullying happening outside school.

The Three Tiers

At 23 of the schools, teachers were expected to talk about and discuss the issue of bullying in class. This included promoting respect, encouraging inclusiveness and teaching coping skills. Staff were also asked to indicate how often their school had used six intervention methods in actual cases of bullying direct sanctions; strengthening the victim; mediation; restorative practice; the support group method; and, the method of shared concern and their effectiveness.

Restorative practice was considered the most effective. Rigby, R. School perspectives on bullying and preventative strategies: An exploratory study. Australian Journal of Education , First published date: January, doi: Does your school have a written anti-bullying policy? When was the last time it was updated? This scenario may seem to be the case, mainly for learners who come from over-protective homes; such learners would most likely feel unprotected and insecure when distanced from home by the necessity of schooling.

From the RAT framework, such revelations further authenticate the argument that the presence of a motivated offender is necessarily fuelled by the absence of capable guardians that might intervene.

Bullies in School and The Golden Rule - J.D. Daniel - TEDxTryon

For this reason, the act of bullying is not so much about feeling lonely on the part of the girls; it would seem to be justified by the fact that the perpetrator found loneliness a motivating pre-condition for bullying. The above findings are similar to the findings of a study conducted by Brunstein Klomek, Marrocco, Kleinman, Schonfeld and Gould , in which they postulate that those who often felt lonely were more likely to report being a target of bullying.

Victimized adolescents may be widely disliked, or not well-liked by their peers. Victimised adolescents often experience peer rejection and deviant affiliation, leaving them more vulnerable to aggressive peers. Many victims of bullying have a tendency to suppress their feelings, which makes it difficult for them to confide in anyone.

As a result, this increases their feelings of isolation, anxiety, and withdrawal. According to Field , they become isolated, misunderstood, and unsupported.

Identifying and addressing bullying

Therefore, these problems become a good breeding ground for victimisation. Parenting style has been noted to play key role in how an individual responds to incidents of bullying within a public arena such as the classroom. The FGD evidence indicated that some were brought up by authoritarian parents, who were over-protective, and which made them less able to stand up for themselves in the absence of their over-protective and capable guardians.

This particular finding concurs with the findings by Fraser-Thill , who revealed that parents of bullying victims tend to over-protect their children, thereby rendering their children powerless, which increases their chances of being bullied while away from the watchful eyes of their over-protective parents. On the other hand, FGD reveals that some of the female participants experienced a permissive parenting style; a scenario in which parenting is high in warmth, but low in control, and that allows children to behave as they so wish.

Coloroso states that children raised within such parenting style are vulnerable to bulling, as they make no attempt to stand up to bullies. Macintyre believes children must to be taught by their families to look after themselves in order to reduce their susceptibility to deviant forms of manipulation, such as bullying. Children are exposed to numerous forms of manipulation when their parents do not feature much in their lives. The harmful effects of bullying specifically on adolescent girls are varied and long-term; as such these should not be neglected.

Such effects extend the academic lives of girls, and to other victims of bullying. The schooling experiences of victims are often badly compromised. Girl victims who end up dropping out of school as a result of their bullying experiences are likely to have their future blurred with uncertainties.

The impact of bullying on the career prospects and personality of adolescent girls therefore requires urgent intervention that calls upon experts to consider options that target both girls and boys in context. To tackle the menace of school bullying for both perpetrators and victims, all stakeholders must be brought on board. It is recommended for teachers to endeavour to create a classroom environment that will make it less likely for learners to want to bully those around them. This refers to positive classroom climate in which all learners are taught the importance of compassionate as well as learner-to-learner supportive behaviour.

Teachers must live out these positive attitudes themselves, such that learners perceive their efficacy. Teachers may require additional professional development skills in the area of managing positive classroom environment that discourage bullying among learners. School psychologists and counsellors should work in partnership with teachers in assisting them to manage behaviours that encourage bullying among learners. They can provide on-site training to teachers in managing and preventing bullying inducing behaviours among learners.

  • Interventions on Bullying and Cyberbullying in Schools: A Systematic Review.
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As part of this training, Van der Zanden et al. On the other hand, school psychologists and counsellors have a duty with the victims in particular, as well as perpetrators. The girl victims in this study had difficulties opening up their experiences with the researchers.

Strengthening the Victim

This particular attitude could be one of the long-term effects of bullying that borders on self-esteem and self-image of the victims. School psychologists and counsellors can develop positive personality-relevant and empowerment training skills for the girl victims.

Such training may go a long way to beef-up the self-confidence of the victims in being able to handle the situation in many ways. Finally, the position of teachers makes it imperative that they work in partnership with parents of victors and victims. As with the victims, sometimes the problem is about getting the information in the most appropriate manner from the parents. Teachers' professional development training ought to include skills in communicating with parents in specific issues as bullying.

Working in partnership with parents may go a long way in helping victims to recover much quicker. The researchers had some challenges with some of the girl participants, who proved reluctant to open up. Issues around bullying for the adolescent girl victims were considered too sensitive, more so because it touched on their self-esteem resulting from bullying experiences.

This scenario may have impacted the quality of data obtained from the participants on the issues in focus. The use of instruments such as the participant diary may have been very useful in this regard. Future researchers are encouraged to test such methods. The diary instrument is a qualitative approach to data collection in which a short multi-page booklet will be handed to the participants to carefully and privately document their experiences relating to the area being researched. Depending on the duration of the fieldwork, diaries may be administered up to five times, and collected from each participant diary keeper, say, at the end of each week.

Diaries have the potential to reveal valuable information that the participant may not be willing to disclose by other means. We would therefore remind our readers to be mindful of these limitations when making use of this paper. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. Methodological application of multiple case study design using modified consensual qualitative research CQR analysis to identify best practices and organizational factors in the public rehabilitation program.

Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, The importance of self-esteem in learning and behavior in children with exceptionalities and the role magic tricks may play in improving self-esteem and in motivating learning. Honours thesis. Accessed 26 October Beane AL Bullying prevention for schools: A step-by-step guide to implementing a successful anti-bullyingprogram. Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying - An analysis of Swedish adolescent data.

Computer in Human Behavior, 29 5 An examination of emotion regulation, temperament, and parenting style as potential predictors of adolescent depression risk status: A correlational study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27 3 Application of routine activity theory to cyber intrusion location and time.

Bullying, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach.

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